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Investigations on the fatigue crack growth of commercial pure titanium are carried out with cruciform specimens under different biaxial load ratios (λ = 0, 0.5, and 1) and crack inclination angles (β = 90, 60, and 45) in this paper. Based on the finite element results, the modified solution of stress intensity factors KI and KII for cruciform specimens containing mixed mode I-II crack is obtained by considering crack size, biaxial load ratio, and crack inclination angles. The experimental results show that the maximum tangential stress criterion is fit for the prediction of crack initiation angles for mixed model I-II crack under uniaxial or biaxial loading condition. When the biaxial load ratio increases, the crack propagation angle becomes smaller, and so does the fatigue crack growth rate of mode I crack or mixed mode I-II crack. Based on an equivalent stress intensity factor, a new valid stress intensity factor is proposed to better describe the biaxial fatigue crack growth behavior, which can demonstrate the contribution of mode I and mode II of stress intensity factor.
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Crack is produced by dissolving powdered cocaine in a mixture of water and ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). The mixture is boiled until a solid substance forms. The solid is removed from the liquid, dried, and then broken into the chunks (rocks) that are sold as crack cocaine.
Individuals of all ages use crack cocaine--data reported in the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse indicate that an estimated 6,222,000 U.S. residents aged 12 and older used crack at least once in their lifetime. The survey also revealed that hundreds of thousands of teenagers and young adults use crack cocaine--150,000 individuals aged 12 to 17 and 1,003,000 individuals aged 18 to 25 used the drug at least once.
Plus, fiber helps you feel full and reduces the number of calories you absorb from meals. One study suggests that increasing fiber intake from 18 to 36 grams daily may result in up to 130 fewer calories absorbed (49, 50).
Standard photolithography techniques produce various micropatterns but are limited to a feature size of approximately a micron1. To overcome this limitation, conventional nanolithography techniques such as electron-beam lithography and focused ion-beam are commonly employed2. Often, the standard photolithography and nanolithography techniques are used together to create mixed-scale patterns. However, the nanolithography and/or the combination of the two multi-scale lithography techniques show weaknesses in throughput and cost caused by the direct-writing-based nanofabrication processes and scale-up or scale-down lithography processes in series2,3. Cracks are considered material failures and have never been welcome in micro/nanofabrication processes, but active manipulation of cracking phenomena made it possible to produce various micro and nanoscale patterns, showing remarkable potential for a novel unconventional patterning technique4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14. However, the cracking-based micro and nanopatterns show several weaknesses and limitations: only one-dimensional (1D) or limited 2D patterns because of the direction of applied stresses4,5,6,7,8,9 and the crystallinity of a substrate11, respectively; the insufficient controllability of the geometric dimension (for example, width, depth and length) of cracks/patterns caused by the incapability of manipulating the stress strength6,7,8,10,11,12,13,14; low success rates in patterning because of unwanted crack formation4,9,11; low throughput in fabrication because of sequential and multiple fabrication processes11,14; incompatibility with other microfabrication processes5,6,7,10 and low reproducibility by micromoulding and/or soft lithography10,11,12. The most relevant alternatives for cracking-based patterning appear to partially or individually address the weaknesses and limitations4,8,9,11. Therefore, a novel technique that can comprehensively and fully address all the weaknesses and overcome the crucial limitations is strongly required for the practical application of crack-based patterns.
Cracking can be easily controlled either by the shape of the micropattern (decided during mask design), which determines the concentrated stress near notches, or crack tips (σc) or the amount of exposure energy (during fabrication), which influences material properties, including fracture strength (σf). For example, in cases (i) and (iv) of Fig. 1d, cracking was not initiated because stresses were insufficiently concentrated, since the used structure had a rounded shape (σc
We investigated the control of initiation, propagation and termination of cracking by testing various stress-concentrating and stress-releasing microstructures. The experimental results are categorized into three cases: multiple cracks originating from acute notches (θN>σf), single cracks originating from obtuse notches (90148, σc
A ultraviolet intensity meter (SUSS MicroTec) was used to measure the exposure energy during the photolithography process. The thickness of the SU-8 film was measured using a surface profiler (P-6, KLA Tencor, USA). Atomic force microscopy (D3100, Veeco, USA) and scanning electron microscopy (Quanta200, FEI, USA) were used for imaging and quantifying cracks. An inverted fluorescence microscope (Ti-U, Nikon, Japan) equipped with a charge-couple device camera (ORCA R2, Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan) was used to obtain the optical and fluorescent microscopic images. FITC (Sigma-Aldrich) and fluorescently labelled microbeads (Invitrogen, USA) were used for visualizing and quantifying mass transport through nanochannels. Two pairs of 0.25-mm diameter platinum wires (Huntingdon, UK) were used as electrodes to apply electric potentials, which were generated and monitored via a source meter (Model No. 2635A, Keithley Instruments, USA). For data analysis and image processing, Image J (NIH, USA) and OriginPro 8 (OriginLab, USA) were used.
How to cite this article: Kim, M. et al. Cracking-assisted photolithography for mixed-scale patterning and nanofluidic applications. Nat. Commun. 6:6247 doi: 10.1038/ncomms7247 (2015).
The list of street names for cocaine is long and ever evolving. Some of the more common names play on the effects of cocaine or what cocaine looks like. There are also a variety of names for using cocaine mixed with other drugs and when using different varieties, like crack cocaine.
Any systems, regardless of which method is used for identification and/or authentication is susceptible to hacking. Password-protected systems or collection of data (think bank accounts, social networks, and e-mail systems) are probed daily and are subject to frequent attacks carried forward not only through phishing and social engineering methods, but also by means of passwords cracking tools. The debate is always open, and the length vs. complexity issue divides experts and users. Both have pros and cons as well as their own supporters.
Weak and insecure passwords are a security concern and a gateway to breaches that can affect more than just the targeted users. It is important to create keys that strike the right balance between being easy to remember and hard for others (intruders or impostors) to guess, crack or hack.
Of course, users need to be also aware that password strength is not all. Risky behaviors like using auto save features in browsers or saving passwords in plaintext in desktop files, for example, will compromise even the strongest password. Falling pray of social engineering tactics would also defeat the purpose of using any strong, impossible-to-crack passwords.
Protection should also granted through measures implemented by system administrators who can use tools to limit the number of password-cracking attempts that can be made before the system denies any access to the data. Requiring another proof of identity to gain access to a resource, something the user has or is, for example, is also an extra protection in addition to the use of passwords. In addition, in a company, regular password auditing will help strengthen the security posture making sure that the complexity and strength of all access passkeys are adequate and that users are prompted to change theirs if found to be too weak.
Congress passed and President Donald Trump signed the First Step Act one year ago on December 21, 2018, to limit mandatory minimums for low-level drug offenses, provide retroactive sentence reductions to people imprisoned under the 100 to 1 crack cocaine disparity, and expand rehabilitation in federal prisons. Implementation of the new law has been mixed.
Since 2013, the federal prison population has declined by almost 43,000 people because of reductions to the federal sentencing guidelines for drug offenses promulgated by the U.S. Sentencing Commission and changes to mandatory minimum sentences for crack cocaine offenses enacted by Congress in 2010. Full implementation and robust funding for the First Step Act can contribute to further reducing the federal prison population, but Congress and the Department of Justice have more work to do to end overcrowding, ensure fairness in sentencing and improve prison conditions.
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